Death By Utopia

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John B. Calhoun relaxing in Universe 25

In the late 20th Century, John B. Calhoun decided to make Utopia; it started with rats. In 1947 he began to watch a colony of Norway rats, over 28 months he noticed something, in that time the population could have increased to 50,000 rats, but instead it never rose above 200. Then he noticed that the colony split into smaller groups of 12 at most. He continued to study rats up until 1954. Then in 1958, he made his first lab.

He bought the second floor of a barn, and there he made his office and lab. For four years he had Universe 1, a large room hosting rats and mice alike. It was split into four spacious pens connected by ramps, each filled with rats. The thronging mass of rodents produced an odour so strong that unaccustomed visitors took several minutes until they could breathe normally. In 1963 he produced his most famous creation, Universe 1. The worlds first mouse mortality-inhibiting-environment.

2.7 metres square with 1.4m high walls. The ‘Universe’ was surrounded by 16 tunnels leading to food, water and burrows. No predators, no scarcity, the mice would have to be blind to not see the utopia around them. At least it began as Utopia. Four breeding pairs of mice were introduced into Universe 1. After 104 days they adjusted to the new world and the population began to grow, doubling every 55 days. By day 315 the population reached 620. Then is stopped. The population grew much more slowly as the mice came against the limit of space, their only limiting frontier.

Society broke. Young were expelled before they had been properly weaned and were arbitrarily attacked by excessive aggressive male mice. Females became more aggressive, non-dominant males became passive, not retaliating to attacks. The last healthy birth came on the 600th day. Then there were no new mice. Then there were none.

The outside of Universe 25

The purpose of the experiment for Calhoun was to examine a pressing problem, overpopulation. In the post-war 1940′s the world population was rising extremely quickly and in the 1970′s this continued. The question was, what happens next? So he tested it, and tested again. Just 9 years later, in 1972, he produced Universe 25, similar in design but so precise as to keep the temperature at a constant 20 degrees. No matter how he adjusted the ‘Universe’ the results were consistent, the mice moved from perfect to appalling.

After day 600, the male mice just stopped defending their territory, listless mice congregated in the centres of the Universe. These gangs would burst into pointless and sporadic violence. Females stopped reproducing and even started attacking their own young. Mortality rose phenomenally. Roaming mice either attacked or attempted to mount others, irrespective of relation or gender, cannibalism and other acts of depravity consumed them. These were the feral ones. Then there were the ‘beautiful ones.’

The ‘beautiful ones’ withdrew themselves ever so quietly, removing themselves from the sick society. Solitary pursuits began to define them; eating, drinking and grooming among others. No scars on their back or hairs out-of-place, these mice behaved like a separate race. They saw the world through their narrow scopes, as they tossed, turned and tried to cope.

In the end the population sank, even when it was back down to a tolerable level none of the mice changed back. The change was irreversible, the mice were different now. The secluded females could still bear offspring and the beautiful ones had the capacity to help produce them yet it never came. This tipping over into irreversible societal collapse came to be known as ‘The Behavioral Sink.’ John Calhoun called it the first death. Death of the mind and soul, leading eventually to the second death, of the physical form. What he meant was that after the first death, the mice were no longer mice and could never be so again.

Spoiler - Soylent Green is people!

Poster for dystopian film Soylent Green

In a time where people worried about the dangers of people gathering in cities it confirmed their worst fears. The paper, when published, was a massive hit as papers go, it fed into the public consciousness and seemed to match up with the worst of the worries. In 1973, the same year in which the paper was published, the film Soylent Green was released. It depicted a future, an overcrowded world where the population could only survive on Soylent Green, a food handout from the government. The source it turns out, was the more than plentiful supply of human corpses. This change, this innovation was reflected in his experiments. From the cannibalism to the behaviour in desperate mice, John Calhoun noticed that some mice, feral though they were, had to innovate to survive, they became creative.

This purpose of the experiments was not to portend some imminent doom for humanity, in fact Calhoun was trying to be positive. He wanted to change cities, his remedy to the behavioural sink was creativity. By changing society and changing how we designed our cities we could avoid becoming mired, stagnant, and eventually, dead as a dormouse. Over 100 Universes were designed after he published the paper in 1973, these ones designed with the aim of promoting creativity and reducing stagnation.

The fact that nearly everyone who read his research used it to draw out doom caused John Calhoun to become distraught. They missed his point, but still he pressed on. Regardless of what was said, there was science to do. He and others promoted space colonies as a way of advancing human societies and he convinced others to change the way they thought of cities. Bringing in the idea that the places in which people lived could affect their lives in the way they were designed.

For the first time in history, over 50% of the world population exists within cities, and they are safer than ever before, due in part to the ideas drawn from John B. Calhoun and his pungent rodents. His 1973 paper has been classed as one of the 40 most influential psychology papers of all time, and with good reason, it may have indirectly saved thousands of lives.

Further Reading

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Deployed on by Alexandre Coates in Macro Oddities 80 Current Replies

80 Responses to Death By Utopia

  1. Alana

    Great insight, good points made!!

    • Robespierre

      I think there’s a major problem with J. B. Calhoun’s conclusions (and it has far greater implications): he’s only blaming overpopulation for the collapse of the mouse society while ignoring other factors. Obviously overpopulation would initially occur with an infinite amount of food in a limited space but I don’t think that was the cause of the societal collapse; I think the collapse was the product of each individual’s reaction to losing the relative influence and control they initially had over their environment and the group; the only 2 things mice would care about.

      To understand what I’m saying, imagine that you’re one of a few mice that just found a huge, safe, room full of food. As a mouse, your safety is in your numbers and your power is defined by your ability to influence the group. Also, instinct will demand that you multiply, even if you don’t see any current threats, so that you can ‘control’ your environment, so to speak, by having dominance over the next generation and the ability to influence the group if conditions change. However, once the group gets too large, crowd psychology takes over and there’s no longer the presence, or possibility, for each individual to influence the group as a whole or even individual members.

      The point I’m trying to make is that the size of the population may be correlated with the social decay while not being the cause. The real cause of the decay could be the domineering status quo, shaped by crowd psychology, and no longer controlled or influenced by any individual members. If predators, disruptive surprises, or even changes to the environment(eg stuff to explore or manipulate like tunnels or piles of trash) were added and even in a way that minimized excessive deaths, the population might continue to grow and the collapse may be averted(or its effects minimized) despite even greater crowding.

      If this may be the case, rather than merely overpopulation, then the implications on human society could be dire especially if/when policies, influenced by this experiment, are put forward that try to fight overpopulation only to hasten social collapse by forcing human societies to stop growing, and thus adapting, to the theretofore powerful demographic forces which had historically been essential for breaking out of decadence and decay. Societies tend to collapse when their status quo is so resistant to change that new conditions cause their whole structures to crumble. While demographics can force that change, its factors from without, not from within, that are initially responsible. While overpopulation was necessary for the mice to degenerate, it most likely wasn’t the cause. Mice aren’t humans. They don’t create complex societies, use tools, build atom bombs, do suicide bombings, start wars with each other, or create complex hierarchies. They are limited to their physical strength and instinct; basically all that humans would be left with in a future, shaped by an unwise generation that acquiesced to demagoguery and gave government the “necessary” power to fully control human population, and dominated by a ruling system that’s totalitarian reign – having expunged any future demographic pressure – is a prison planet which on deadly force to preserve a vile status quo from reform.

      • Calin

        In your assumption there’s an implied factor that mice are intelligent creatures. This is far from the truth, the information in their genes is not that vast, therefore I’d say we need to check for another contributing factor elsewhere,such as the quality of their environment.

  2. Yeshanu

    Good article, but it doesn’t quite go far enough. What happened in the 100 universes created after the paper was published? Did any of them work? Something for me to research…

    • Alexandre Coates

      I am glad that you liked the article, for me the main concern was the interesting if terrifying behaviour of the mice. I was foolish enough not to think of the later universes. Due to the literature I found on the topic I must assume he was never entirely successful, still it would be nice to know how much he managed to change the point of the behavioural sink.
      If you come up with anything interesting in your research do let me know! You can email me at: [email protected]
      Thank you for the comment.

      • vesey

        they’re mice for corn sakes………..

  3. Bakeca Incontri Roma

    Great article! Thanks for sharing!

  4. Alex B

    Very interesting… but I am surprised that the scientist J. B. Calhoun never realised an absolutely vital flaw in his experiment. This bares no relevance to reality, for humans nor mice!

    When you pluck a part of nature from the real world and put it in your false one, all of the intricate balances of nature are put radically out of kilter. For if he were to create a real utopia, he would have to involve population culling factors to offset the innate biological drives which ensured the species success against those odds in the first place i.e. predators vs the mouse’s high frequency of breeding. Then he would have to create a utopia for the predators and account for all its biological factors, and would inevitably lead him straight back to the vast intricacy and intelligence of the unaltered nature of the world. This is why Alan Watts calls everything an ‘environment-organism’, because all things are as much organism as they are their environment, so closely are they weaved together in existence.

    Okay, so the refuting point to my argument would be that we humans are also in an artificial environment, one that is created for us and by us and off-kiltering nature in much more drastic ways. However, that is the singular crucial difference between us and the mice. We created this unnatural world, and are therefore knowledgeable and skilful enough to be able to, not only foresee the threats, but address them as well – such as over population. Although, sadly, no REAL movements are being made towards such endeavours at present, and the machine of human greed and selfishness continues to roll onwards towards its own demise.

    (Maybe it would be a utopia if tried neutering or removing and slaughtering the subjects in order to artificially maintain population levels? Bit of a weird utopia though…)

    • Alexandre Coates

      Great comment Alex! I’ll see if I can match you for complexity on this one.
      John B Calhoun’s ‘Utopia’ is simply an environment with no limiting factors, specifically, nothing would ever run out, apart from space. He assumed that having living things is a good thing; based on that assumption the environment he built, no limiting factors, optimised for the maximum number of mice. The Utopia though is beside the point.
      It is simply a place where he can have the most mice, in the least time, without shipping new mice in. He just incidentally created what is, initially, a haven for mice, so that he could enable this. Your point about a disconnect between a simple simulation and reality is a very sharp one, but as you admit, it is to model an artificial environment. Specifically an environment in which there is one dominant creature which has many of its needs catered for. The purpose of the experiment was to see how the crowding affected mice, and how to change the effect, not quite to create a Utopia, although he attempted that in his later work.
      You say that humans are “knowledgeable and skilful enough to be able to, not only foresee the threats, but address them as well”. This experiment was not an apocalypse simulator for an inevitable demise of humanity. Rather it was one of the things that makes us humans “knowledgeable and skilful”. Given this information we know exactly what to avoid, eye-watering population densities!
      It has given us the information that we need, mob-mentality can be murderous, split people up. Solutions to this are things like blocks of flats, here we have very high densities of people, but it is counteracted by the fact that the space is divided up, giving privacy. The lack of privacy or personal territory was one of the main factors that caused mice extreme stress and the ‘behavioral sink’. Just a little something to consider.
      I don’t have all of the answers, but I must thank you again for the very insightful, thought provoking comment. If you want to understand more about the problem of overpopulation I recommend viewing this TED Talk, it is very insightful:
      I hope I was of some help.

      • Alex B

        Thank you for your response! That has cleared it up for me… I was perhaps a little quick to condemn him and the experiment. Haha. I am pleased that the experiment can go towards helping deal with these issues and raise awareness of them. Thanks again.

    • Tomas Hastings

      But you fail to realize that natural selection and survival of the fittest are in an attempt to build a utopia and strive for perfection through nature. The nature factor is pre-existent in the mice and in humans. The United States essentially is close to a Utopia. The fat and unhealthy ride off EBT food stamp cards and WIC, regardless most of the time of their own standing financially. Predators arise from their own population. Today we have our predators forming and the violent, and overly sexual rapists and child molesters/gays communicating via the internet, creating a new normal. In the mice colony, everyone is in plain sight and therefore can see what behaviors and norms are occurring.

      • Mike Byrns

        Wow. Right-wing hate much? Where this is happening most is is the ghettos created by right wing racism and greed. Income inequality squeezes poor urbanites into pressure cookers like this experiment. Gangs are the marauding bands in the experiment and are the direct result of right wing policies’ effects on nature. You then use them as a reason for more racism and hate and for more cops and greater authoritarianism and incarceration.

        • Jack

          “direct result of right wing policies”
          You’re an idiot my friend.

        • Lester English

          It’s a rats Utopia, look up the definition, there are no predators there is no need to hunt for food or water, it’s all there in the Utopia for these rats!
          He is not talking about a shared world! The only parallel this has with life is the quest for a utopian life, no threats, no want SO look what happens to the rats, will humans do the same thing?
          Look at the hate after this election by the passive left, there is no surprise anymore

    • ThatDude

      “machine of human greed” is responsible for all the creature comforts of technological advancement you now enjoy. Nitwit.

  5. Alex B

    I wasn’t finished that first reply and it just sent… can that be deleted?

  6. Alexandrov Pupadent

    “No matter how he adjusted the ‘Universe’ the results were consistent, the mice moved from perfect to appalling.”
    ” By changing society and changing how we designed our cities we could avoid becoming mired, stagnant, and eventually, dead as a dormouse.”

    • Alexandre Coates

      Thanks to the experiments we now what kind of conditions can de-humanise us. Using that information we can create places that avoid those situation, meaning we can avoid the mice-stagnation.
      I hope that helped, thank you for the insightful comment.

      • MichaelL65

        Has any of his research been adapted, or used in designing prisons? In some ways, the situation is similar to what the mice faced – everything provided, yet the fact that space is limited.

        • Alexandre Coates

          Thank you for the comment. Understand that this is my interpretation and that I am not a professional, but here goes my reckoning.

          A great cause of the stress was constant interaction, the space was all open-plan and the numbers were such that interaction was unrelenting. Social interactions are complex, our brains are large in part to aid us in managing our myriad social connections. So, understandably they put a strain on us, also the ability to restrain yourself is finite, so patience wears thin over time until recuperated during rest.

          So in prisons you have limited space, resources, and you have people. But consider this, the population is managed and set very stringently so that there is space enough to accommodate everyone. Additionally the prison is broken up into many spaces, most notably the cells. They are private, personal areas which contain fewer than 10 other individuals. These points of break from outer society allow for relaxation and recovery.

          I hope that answers your question.

        • mike russell

          I know this is old but i have been sharing this link what with all the insanity in the USA right now. If you want to see this in action, just look at any ghetto. Humans forget that at our core we are just animals, our only that can predict future outcomes when we move to alter our surroundings.

  7. Tony Day

    Thought provoking stuff. I have often wondered about the efforts medcal science is making to combat all causes of death and serious illness and its possible effect on population growth.
    Whether or not anything in your article can shine a light on the problems which may be faced by human overpopulation is questionable. Great site. Well done

    • Alexandre Coates

      Thank you for the comment Tony. If you want to know more about science and overpopulation I highly recommend the TED Talks of Hans Rosling, a rather funny statistician with a wealth of useful information. Youtube him, or find him here:
      The concern of this article is to do with extreme population density, something far beyond what is currently found on earth, even beyond the densities in Tokyo, or Mumbai.
      Also, population density is the same problem as population, it is a pressing concern. Fortunately within 30 or so years the world population should start decreasing, so it may solve itself. Unless the UN projections are wrong…

      • Melayahm

        I assume you meant wealth and not dearth!! 🙂

        • Alexandre Coates

          Thank you for the correction! I did indeed mean wealth.

  8. Melayahm

    I first heard about this experiment back in the 70’s when I was studying A level zoology. I remember being fascinated by the ideas and they’ve stuck with me ever since, but I never knew the details. Interesting to find out more about it after all these years!

    • Alexandre Coates

      It is great to know I have helped you satisfy your knowledge lust, at least for the moment. Thank you for the comment.

  9. Luke

    Brilliant, really brilliant … I’m going to dwell on this and dissect this a little more, and send a strongly worded email your way soon! 🙂

    • Alexandre Coates

      I am very flattered that would call something I wrote ‘brilliant.’ I worked hard on the piece, but it was also a very interesting topic. I look forward to the email… although I’m not sure I will be able to handle your strong words 😉
      Thank you for the comment.

  10. Oelsen

    Read, read:

    The lack of privacy or personal territory was one of the main factors that caused mice extreme stress and the ‘behavioral sink’.

    This sentence in a comment lets me think about how every communication online is stored by other “rats” and how cities are more and more panopticons.

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  12. Rassgg

    The question that I have is how many common genes do we share with Mickey? If it as many as I suspect, then this really is a cautionary tale. Maybe it is the unique genes that we have that gives the hope of a different outcome.

  13. jeff

    Great, great article thanks for the easy to follow intersting information.

    My one question and wonder about this, is he started with 4 breeding pairs, this would to me indicate that there was lots of inbreeding, perhaps in addition to the size restraints the mice recognized there were no good breeding matches or maybe they became more aware of it.

  14. Lois

    We still need to change the way cities are designed. There is too much concrete, glass, asphalt, and metal, and not enough greenery. Entire tops of buildings could be used as rooftop gardens (provided they are structurally sound). The greenery would not only be pleasant to look at, but reduce the amount of heat produced by artificial materials, and increase the amount of oxygen in the air. Imagine all the vacant lots and derelict buildings, malls, and amusement parks that could be restructured to provide green areas. Nobody likes living in ugly surroundings, so why not make an effort to make them more beautiful?

  15. Jason

    Thank you for the interesting article. I do have one question.

    “His 1973 paper has been classed as one of the 40 most influential psychology papers of all time, and with good reason, it may have indirectly saved thousands of lives.”

    How has his research influenced urban planning, city development, population control, etc.,etc.? I am by no means knowledgable in topics regarding the mentioned disciplines, but when I look at all of the new developments being implemented in large cities, I do not see any influences from Calhoun. New residential living quarters seem to be built as high rises and flats are becoming smaller to introduce more people into the center of civilization (read downtown New York flats). I see the exact opposite happening. I was just wondering whether Calhoun’s research is actually being implemented or if – like many other research projects that seem to large of scope to be able to control – has been passed on as a pipedream.

    Hopefully you are still monitoring this comment log, but if not, my own research will have to suffice. Thanks again.

  16. Matt

    Much as these were fascinating experiments, I have this niggling suspicion that there is more to them than meets the eye. Humans tend to have a basic assumption that the height of animal pleasure would be infinite food and safety. After all, most animals spend their entire lives seeking just that, so it would make sense. However, for a very long time, hominids did exactly the same thing. Once we had a surplus though, it turned out that we needed the higher levels of Maslow’s hierarchy in order to be really happy. Perhaps it’s just our enlarged prefrontal cortex that gives us the need to have meaning in our lives, but it never seems to be considered that other species may have that need as well. If that’s the case, mouse society may not have broken simply due to overpopulation. Rather, they may have been living in a hell of meaningless mouse-ennui. At the very least it could have been a contributing factor.
    It sounds far fetched maybe, but behavioral economist Dan Ariely describes a behavior in his book “The Upside of Irrationality” that he calls “Contrafreeloading.” It is the tendency for animals to prefer earned food rather than free food. Apparently all animals he tested (Except cats. Go figure.) exhibited this behavior. In fact, Professor Ariely’s parrot was described as having a propensity to self mutilate if was simply kept in a cage and fed without keeping its mind engaged. I have no idea how one would go about keeping mice mentally engaged, but I do know how for humans, which means the experiment may not translate as well as you may think.

  17. Leonida

    I get pleasure from, cause I found just what I was looking for.
    You’ve ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a great day. Bye

  18. jason

    If he only started with 4 breeding pairs, it may be the case that all the problems exhibited were due to inbreeding. Another much bigger experiment with many more breeding pairs needs to be done to rule out the possibility that inbreeding was the problem.

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  21. northierthanthou

    I remember hearing about this one when I was younger. Interesting to read about it in a little more detail.

    • Alexandre Coates

      I’m glad that you enjoyed it. If you know about any other interesting experiments do let me know, I can never have too many facts.

      • Trevor Coonan

        So Frederick Douglass’ comment “If there is no struggle, there is no progress” sort of fits here, as once need, want, desire and lack are removed the society disintegrates into primitive chaos.

        • Bernard Parsons

          Need, want, desire and lack? I don’t think so. I think the issue here is effort and complexity, and another seems to be being able to be alone.

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  24. Gordon Knotte

    I read John B’s report when it came out in the 70′. I just found this site while researching for anther project and glade to see the discussion is still going. Some four decade having past and there signs of some of Calhoun’s experiment poping up in human society. Note the comparison: Intertainment – more violence oriented. Human Homosexuality has and is still on the increase, Alpha male (and female) violance on submisives has increased, even in juveniles and children. Sexual Diviation – Rape, children and aged rape and sodemisation now a routine occurrence. The lack of individual responcibility is declining. Greed and poseciveness accompanied with an apathy towards other on the rise. Calhoun’s Universes will not be followed by the human event because of the ability of humans the evaluate history and plan for the future. But these gifts will not save society from the same end, it will only take longer. Just as in an un controlled, riotist prison or war zone the alphas will take control, the passives will become slaves, pleasure, corruption, and degeneration will stagnate leadership and uncontrolled disease will finish the race. There will be periods of revital, but in the end, the automated Soilant Green factories will stand idle.

  25. henk

    Hi there this is great research but to me it proves how nature adatopts to the environment which we pretty much knew already. To prove this came at the cost of experimenting with live rats. Sounds like lots of rats had to suffer death and pain just to prove this to us. Does animal cruelty not come into it? I think the Chinese 1 child policy is a measure that was taken for the same purpose of overcoming the extremes of behavior due over population. I would hate to think of the suffering of some of these other 100 plus experiments that were done. After all rats have eyes, smell, hearing, taste better than humans so what makes us think that the one sense “feeling” is not like ours or better than ours. I can accept similar research for the benefit of curing our diseases but this mega research in my opinion has serious neglect.

  26. Joy

    Well Henk, I think that the experiment provides a vital tool to the wellbeing of humanity. If humans are taught to conserve space in large cities they are also provided the opportunity to care for the wellbeing of nature and animal life. Some rats may have been expended in this procedure but the future of rats in the world will be preserved, as many rats live in the sewers amongst the world’s most populated cities. Let me ask you Henk, are you also a vegetarian, do you not eat meat or chicken?

  27. Pat

    Kind of reminds me of what is happening to today’s inner cities.

  28. ran

    thanks for the artical id like to find his other later experiements were he increased outside stimuli and or decreased the lvl of forced social intereaction, heres somethign kinda related{%2210100610983032145%22%3A711601315520870}&action_type_map={%2210100610983032145%22%3A%22og.likes%22}&action_ref_map=

  29. ryan

    found a synopsis of his work he did manage to find a solution to the behavoural sink for rats it involved privatefeeding and drinking once crowding became a issue thoug infant mortality went up to 80% (96%) if a behavoral sink was in effect it makes me wonder about armys though and mess halls, i think some ppl understood behavoral sink a long time ago lol i know i dont trust conventonal armed forces anymore after reading all this less infact they aply all the stresses to induce a behavoral sink then atempt to focuse them all into “ferals” and boo out the “outcast” and bootifull” types as far as i can tell

  30. ryan

    the bigest lack in calhouns experiments was the ability of the overpopulated mice to invade less populated areas i want to setup a behavior sink then alow ferals to migrate to a lower pop area and see what aditional changes take place in the pasives once the imediate preditation and example of preditation by ferals is gone, then i want to reintroduce the ferals back into mix and see if they behave like a seperate class or species i think i can make mouse pesants and nobility after a few migrations. but humans even though we live on 1 planet are broken into numourouse citys and were 1 degenerates to badly ppl migrate, we dont have the food on the planet to simulate his experiemnts fully it dose aply well to individual citys but thers more then 1 city and ppl migrate

  31. Anonymous

    Strange… This really genuinely

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  33. baise

    On vaa diге que ce n’est nullement faux …

  34. Anya

    Un sérieux merci à l’administrateur de ce site

  35. BeauEvil

    I immediately saw this as a useful experiment to find limits to densely grow food animals. There are a few major differences. Hogs and chickens will cannibalize, but cows and sheep will not. In the (shameful) present-day feedlot production of beef, the situation seems essentially the same as described, limited space and unlimited food, except that we are the sole “predator”. But,we are not a natural predator which selectively culls the weak and infirm. We harvest an entire generation at a proper age. So, the situation isn’t comparable after all.

    What happens in that rat temple in India where people feed rats all day? What is different? I assume that the place must be more of a cobra utopia than a rat utopia since the predators cannot be controlled.

  36. Shojo Bakunuy (@ShojoBakunyu)

    I see two types of people in the world today; the mindless breeders that have unplanned child after unplanned child and suckle Uncle Sam’s teat to be able to provide back care for these unplanned children and those that plan and plan and plan, not having any children or only having 1 or 2 and the outcomes of these two groups almost seem as if they are different species.

    Group one is made up of trauma survivors, addicts, the mentally ill. They end up mindlessly breeding due to the fact that sexual activity is their only means of emotional regulation and self esteem and they maintain a repetition compulsion that just perpetuates the intergenerational tramission of trauma and poverty…

    Group two is made up of people that overcome their mental illness, addiction, and trauma by not being born into a family that has normalizes acting out and thus they have a support network that seeks to get them treatment so their “nature” is overcome by “nurture”.

    Universe 25 looks like the girls I went to high school with that started having sex under age 15 and were doing coke and meth by 19… And started having kids before 19… And now they’re in their 30’s and have between 3 and 5 kids that are being exposed to the same abuse their parents were exposed to…

    U25 explains the Chicago housing projects…
    It explains the trailer parks of Alaska and Mississippi…
    It explains why our entitlement culture leads to multi generational poverty and acting out rather than as a stepping stone to indipendance and self reliance…
    It explains empty celebrates like Paris Hilton and the Kardashians.
    It explains Occupy Wall Street…

    We have l the food and booze and drugs we need and no goals but seek to gather more stuff and alter our perceptions.

    We work to get more ways to distract ourselves and have lost all ambition and satisfaction from the process of working towards a goal…

    As with the mice before the fall, we worry about our hair, worry about being mugged or our cars broken into, and seek oblivion through sexual acting out and substances.

  37. Luis Alberto Solano López

    Alguien me podría responder!
    Existe alguna relación con SACERDOTES PEDERASTAS, Hijos que asesinan a sus padres o padres que asesinan a sus hijos…
    Gracias por la atención que les merece.

  38. Marquisdeshade

    Thanks for the excellent article. I’m shocked and dismayed that I’d never heard of these crucial experiments before, and just got clued in by an off-handed remark in a Stefan Molyneaux vid!

    Here are two thoughts:

    1) Genetic homogeneity strikes me as a confounding variable. Is four breeding pairs sufficient to provide sufficient diversity to avoid maladaptive traits from becoming prevalent in a population of that size, especially given the extreme homogeneity that would have been bred into those proto-couples by virtue being lab animals?
    Not sure this is impactful, but seems worth a thought.

    2) In comparing these results to human populations, I think it important to bear in mind human consciousness has the capacity to transcend the instinctive impulses governing mice, and ourselves. This has been the message of Yogis, Buddhas, etc. throughout the ages. The Beautiful Ones may seem, or even be, somewhat equivalent to Yogis who’ve withdrawn to the mountaintops. But the inner difference is no doubt vast: simple animal coping mechanism vs. ecstatic cosmic connectedness. In any event, humans possess the capacity, through committed inner focus/exploration, to transcend the madness that gripped these poor rodents, if we but choose to apply ourselves. Of course, that’s a big “if” and a Catch-22 as well…

    Thanks again for the interesting article.

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  43. HeWhoKnows

    ofcourse the mice eventually died out. it’s because at some point the females simply became unable to protect their young from the “gangs [who] would burst into pointless and sporadic violence”. all baby mice were killed as soon as they were born.

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  47. kedwa30

    It seems to me that the lack of private space and other factors traumatized the mice resulting in mental illness which debilitated them and made them too mentally disabled to procreate. Calling those that became so introverted that they were somehow able to avoid being attacked ‘beautiful’ must be some kind of irony. They lost their social behavior and were only left with the appearance of civility.
    Too many people confuse the mouse study with the Norway rat study. The rats broke off into colonies of twelve and maintained their population rather than dying off as the mice did.
    Humans are much more complex than either rats or mice, and the rats are more intelligent than the mice. So we can hardly draw any conclusions based on mice anymore than we could draw conclusions of what humans would do based on grasshoppers or bacteria.
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  49. Russell Crew-Gee

    Most of the above comments are based on the psychology not the physiology,which is the basic raison d’être.

    Space is not infinite, we are restricted in the same way as the experiment and the global societies are aggressively striving for more space or domination. This is also reflected in the smaller urban societies in which humans live.

    Add Politics and Religion into the mix and the history of human expansion?

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      I like the article. thank you for sharing. arguable as it may be. if you look at society you can see some of the disturbing behaviors mentioned in the article. luckily for mankind we can build, walls to separate us so we can get away, but still we see the violence, baby dumping, and even some cannibilism in overcrowded cities. of course we see the homosexuality that may or may not be related to overpopulation or berth nature.

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